Research in the Salem group is broadly split into three areas:

1. Developing Innovative Delivery Strategies to Promote Antigen-Specific Immune Responses by Delivering CpG Oligonucleotides, Antigens, or Plasmid DNA


Representative Recent Publications:

V.B. Joshi, A.A. Dodd, X. Jing, A. Wongrakpanich, K. Gibson-Corley, P.S. Thorne and A.K. Salem. Development of a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particle vaccine to protect against house dust mite induced allergy. The AAPS Journal. 2014.

S.M. Geary, C.D. Lemke, D.M. Lubaroff and A.K. Salem. Proposed mechanisms of action for prostate cancer vaccines. Nature Reviews Urology. 2013.

C.D. Lemke, S.M. Geary, V.B. Joshi, A.K. Salem. Antigen coated poly α-hydroxy acid based microparticles for heterologous prime-boost adenovirus based vaccinations. Biomaterials. 2013

V.B. Joshi, S.M. Geary, B.R. Carrillo-Conde, B. Narasimhan, A.K. Salem. Characterizing the anti-tumor response in mice treated with antigen-loaded polyanhydride microparticles. Acta Biomaterialia. 2013

V.B. Joshi, S.M. Geary, A.K. Salem. Biodegradable particles as vaccine delivery systems: Size matters. The AAPS Journal. 2013

S.M. Geary, C.D. Lemke, D.M. Lubaroff and A.K. Salem. The combination of a low-dose chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil, and an adenoviral tumor vaccine has a synergistic benefit on survival in a model tumor system. PLoS ONE. 2013

V.B. Joshi, S.M. Geary, B.P. Gross, A. Wongrakpanich, L.A. Norian, A.K. Salem. Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles as cancer vaccines. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2013

S.M. Geary, A.K. Salem. Human prostate cancer vaccines - clinical trials update. OncoImmunology. 2013

V.B Joshi, S.M. Geary, A.K. Salem. Biodegradable particles as vaccine antigen delivery systems for stimulating cellular immune responses. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2013

S. Vukmanovic, F.C. Blanco, R. McMahon Walk, J.A. Snyder, S. Elliott, M.A. Behlke, S. Rose, A.M. Jacobi, A.K. Salem, A.D. Sandler. T-cell activation is enhanced by targeting IL-10 cytokine production in toll-like receptor stimulated macrophages. ImmunoTargets and Therapy. 2012

S.M. Geary, C.D. Lemke, D.M. Lubaroff, A.K. Salem. Tumor immunotherapy using adenovirus vaccines in combination with intratumoral doses of CpG ODN. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 2011

C.D Lemke, J.B. Graham, S.M. Geary, G. Zamba, D.M. Lubaroff, A.K. Salem. Chitosan is a surprising negative modulator of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses elicited by adenovirus cancer vaccines. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2011

D.A. Santillan, K.K. Rai, M.K. Santillan, Y. Krishnamachari, A.K. Salem and S. Hunter. Efficacy of Polymeric Encapsulated C5a peptidase-based Group B Streptococci Vaccines in a Murine Model. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2011.

C.D. Lemke, J.B. Graham, D.M. Lubaroff, A.K. Salem. Development of an MHC class I Ld-restricted PSA peptide-loaded tetramer for detection of PSA-specific CD8+ T cells in the mouse. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 2011.

J. Intra, X.Q. Zhang, R.L. Williams, X. Zhu, A.D. Sandler, A.K. Salem. Immunostimulatory sutures that treat local disease recurrence following primary tumor resection. Biomedical Materials. 2011 

Y. Krishnamachari, S.M. Geary, C.D. Lemke, A.K. Salem. Nanoparticle delivery systems in cancer vaccines. Pharmaceutical Research. 2010.

R. Goforth, A.K. Salem, X. Zhu, S. Miles, X.Q. Zhang, J. Lee, A.D. Sandler. Immune stimulatory antigen loaded particles combined with depletion of regulatory T-cells induce potent tumor specific immunity in a mouse model of melanoma. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 2009

Y. Krishnamachari and A.K. Salem. Innovative Strategies for Co-delivering Antigens and CpG Oligonucleotides. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2009

J. Intra, J.M Glasgow, H. Q. Mai, A.K. Salem. Pulsatile release of biomolecules from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips with hydrolytically degradable seals. Journal of Controlled Release. 2008

Y. Krishnamachari, M.E. Pearce, A.K. Salem. Self-assembly of cell-microparticle hybrids. Advanced Materials. 2008

X.Q. Zhang, C.E. Dahle, G.J. Weiner and A.K. Salem. A comparative study of the antigen-specific immune response induced by co-delivery of CpG ODN and antigen using fusion molecules or biodegradable microparticles. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2007

X.Q. Zhang, C.E. Dahle, N.K. Baman, N. Rich, G.J. Weiner and A.K. Salem. Potent antigen-specific immune responses stimulated by co-delivery of CpG ODN and antigens in degradable microparticles. Journal of Immunotherapy, 30 (5): 469-478 July/August 2007

2. Developing and Optimizing Novel Drug or Gene Delivery Vehicles


Representative Recent Publications:

A. Wongrakpanich, A.A. Dodd, W. Xie, V.B. Joshi, K.A. Mapuskar, D.R. Spitz, P.S. Thorne and A.K. Salem. The Absence of CpG in Plasmid DNA-Chitosan Polyplexes Enhances Transfection Efficiencies and Reduces Inflammatory Responses in Murine Lungs. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2014

S. D'Mello, J. Yoo, N.B. Bowden, and A.K. Salem. Microparticles prepared from sulfenamide-based polymers. Journal of Microencapsulation. 2013

D. Jiang, A.K. Salem.Optimized dextran-polyethylenimine conjugates are efficient non-viral vectors with reduced cytotoxicity when used in serum containing environments. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2012

N. Kim, D. Jiang, A. Jacobi, K.A. Lennox, S. Rose, M.A. Behlke, A.K. Salem. Synthesis and characterization of mannosylated pegylated polyethylenimine as a carrier for siRNA. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2012

S. Krishnamurthy, M.A. Behlke, S. Ramchandran, A.K. Salem, P.B. McCray Jr, B.L. Davidson. Manipulation of Cell Physiology Enables Gene Silencing in Well-Differentiated Airway Epithelia. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids. 2012

J. Yoo, D. Kuruvilla, S.R. D’Mello, A.K. Salem, and N.B. Bowden. New class of biodegradable polymers formed from reactions of an inorganic functional group. Macromolecules. 2012

J. Yoo, S.R. D’Mello, T. Graf, A.K. Salem, and N.B. Bowden. Synthesis of the first poly(diaminosulfide)s and an investigation of their applications as drug delivery vehicles. Macromolecules. 2012

A. Wongrakpanich, V.B. Joshi, A.K. Salem. Poly(galactaramidoamine) is an efficient cationic polymeric non-viral vector with low cytotoxicity for transfecting human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and murine macrophage (RAW264.7) cells. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. 2012

J. Intra, A.K. Salem. Rational design, fabrication, characterization and in vitro testing of biodegradable microparticles that generate targeted and sustained transgene expression in HepG2 liver cells. Journal of Drug Targeting 2011

J. Intra, A.K. Salem. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro evaluation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticles loaded with polyamidoamine-plasmid DNA dendriplexes for applications in non-viral gene delivery. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010

J. Intra, A.K. Salem. Characterization of the transgene expression generated by branched and linear polyethylenimine (PEI)-plasmid DNA nanoparticles in vitro and after intraperitoneal injection in vivo. Journal of Controlled Release 2008

M.E. Pearce, H.Q. Mai, N. Lee, S.C. Larsen, A.K. Salem. Silicalite nanoparticles that promote transgene expression. Nanotechnology 2008

X.Q. Zhang, J. Intra, A.K. Salem. Comparative study of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly ethyleneimine-plasmid DNA microparticles prepared using double emulsion methods. Journal of Microencapsulation. 2008

A.O. Abbas, M.D. Donovan, A.K. Salem. Formulating PLGA particles for plasmid DNA delivery. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.  2008

X.Q. Zhang, J. Intra, A.K. Salem. Conjugation of polyamidoamine dendrimers on biodegradable microparticles for non-viral gene delivery. Bioconjugate Chemistry. 2007

M.E. Pearce, J.B. Melanko, A.K. Salem. Biomedical applications of multifunctional nanorods. Pharmaceutical Research. 2007

3. Optimizing Control Over Cell-Material Interactions and Engineering of New Tissues


Representative Recent Publications:

S. Elangovan, S.R. D’Mello, L. Hong, R.D. Ross, C. Allamargot, D.V. Dawson, C.M. Stanford, G.K. Johnson, D.R. Sumner, and A.K. Salem. The Enhancement of Bone Regeneration by Gene Activated Matrix Encoding for Platelet Derived Growth Factor. Biomaterials. 2014.

S. D’Mello, A.K. Salem, L. Hong, and S. Elangovan. Characterization and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cationic Complex Mediated Plasmid DNA Delivery in Human Embryonic Palatal Mesenchyme Cells. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 2014

K.L.S. Worthington, A.A. Dodd, A.Wongrakpanich, I.A. Mudunkotuwa, K.A. Mapuskar, V.B. Joshi,  C. A.Guymon, D.R. Spitz, V.H. Grassian, P.S. Thorne and A.K. Salem. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung. Nanotechnology. 2013

N. Wei, Y. Yu, V. Joshi, T. Schmidt, F. Qi-an, A.K. Salem, C. Stanford, L. Hong. Glucocorticoid receptor Antagonist and siRNA Prevent Senescence of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in vitro. Cell and Tissue Research. 2013

L. Hong, N. Wei, V. Joshi, Y. Yu, N. Kim, Y. Krishnamachari, Q. Zhang, A.K. Salem. Effects of glucocorticoid receptor siRNA delivered by poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticles on proliferation and differentiation capabilities of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Tissue Engineering, Part A. 2012

H.M. Rosevear, Y. Krishnamachari, C.A. Ariza, S.K. Mallapragada, A.K. Salem, T.S. Griffith, B.R. De Young, M. Wald. Effect of Combined Locally Delivered Growth Factors and Systemic Sildenafil Citrate on the Number of Micro-recanals in a Biodegradable Conduit for Reconstruction of the Vas Deferens. Urology. 2012

L. Hong, Y. Krishnamachari, D. Seabold, V. Joshi, G. Schneider, A.K. Salem. Intracelluar release of 17-β estradiol from cationic polyamidoamine dendrimer surface modified poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticles improves osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Tissue Engineering, Part C Methods. 2011

A. Petushkov, J. Intra, J.B. Graham, S.C. Larsen, A.K. Salem. Effect of Crystal Size and Surface Functionalization on the Cytotoxicity of Silicalite-1 Nanoparticles. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 2009

J.D. Clapper, M.E. Pearce, C.A. Guymon, A.K. Salem. Biotinylated Biodegradable Nanotemplated Hydrogel Networks for Cell Interactive Applications. Biomacromolecules 2008

J. Sinclair, A.K. Salem. Rapid localized cell trapping on biodegradable polymers using cell surface derivatization and microfluidic networking. Biomaterials. 27 2090-2094 MAR 2006

N.K Baman, G.B. Schneider, T.L. Terry, R. Zaharias, A.K. Salem. Spatial control over cell attachment by partial solvent entrapment of poly lysine in microfluidic channels. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 1 (2): APR 2006